College and Career Ready Reports

In 2007, Congress passed a law about American competitiveness. This law looked to use the federal government to promote excellence in science, technology, and education. The America COMPETES Act was considered “a bipartisan labor of love”[1] enjoying support from Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama[2]. The law itself covered many areas, including but not limited to, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Department of Education. Among these many programs and measures was language about the state, education data systems and gaining post-secondary outcomes from these systems. Specifically, the law calls for information, “regarding the extent to which students transition successfully from secondary school to postsecondary education, including whether students enroll in remedial coursework.”[3] It is this section of the law, pertaining to remedial coursework, which Kansas quotes in its College and Career Ready Reports.

As our first step, we want to define these data. How is the Kansas State Department of Education calculating this remedial coursework enrollment rate? The College and Career Ready Report defines remediation enrollment, “as [those] who [are] enrolled in a Math, Reading, or English developmental course before or during their first academic year of attendance in a Kansas public postsecondary IHE [Institute of Higher Education] following high school graduation.” This number of students that meet that description is then divided by the, “number of students from the high school graduating class cohort entering postsecondary in the academic year following high school graduation and reported as degree or certificate seeking in postsecondary.”[4] It looks as if the students involved in this report are attending public, in-state institutions, are recent high school graduates, and are in their first year of college or university.

Now that we have a type of student defined, we see how much of the population of college or university students fits this definition (similar to our last blog post). For that we turn to historical data using the Integrated Post-Secondary Education Data System (IPEDS) data as reported in the Digest of Education Statistics, both federal data repositories. Information on college attendance and recent graduates is published by IPEDS biennially. A link to the most current table can be found here. This table shows us Kansas had 86% of their recent graduates attend an in-state institution in 2012 or 19,053 students. Below is a chart showing this information over the past 16 years for Kansas.[5]

Similar to Missouri, there are a large percentage of recent high school graduates who attend In-state institutions in Kansas, approximately 80%. As we are using the same information from IPEDS to calculate this estimate, these data have the same limitations. They are not disaggregated by high school nor are they disaggregated by public or private status. Like before, we turn to an overview of all students in public or private institutions within this state.  Below find our graph showing over 20 years of Kansas students’ enrollment by institution type (Public or Private).[6]

This chart, however, is fairly different than Missouri’s. From 1990 to 2012, there is a much higher percentage of students attending public institutions. In one year, this percentage even peaks over 90%. The approximate average is 87% now compare that to 60% for Missouri. We are unsure as to the reason for this sharp difference. Both states Independent College and University groups report similar number of independent institutions 18 (Kansas) to 22 (Missouri). Differences aside, the context for these data comes from the overlap of the two groups we just reviewed: recent Kansas graduates, attending in state colleges and Kanas students attending public colleges. Approximately 80% of Kansas recent graduates stay in state for college, of those students 87% go to public institutions. The College and Career Ready Reports represent approximately 70% of Kansas’s first year college students.

 

 

With the context addressed we can begin to review the contents of the College and Career Ready Reports. It is unclear how frequently these data are updated, but the files contain six years of data from 2007-2012 for the whole state of Kansas. The information is at the school district level with almost all of the data being in percent form. There is some information on demographic distribution, percent enrollment in remediation coursework, and percent students completing one year’s worth of college or university credit.

We may return to these important data for additional analyses, but to begin we have developed a map of all of the school districts in Kansas and their percent enrollment in remedial coursework. The map contains the academic performance of recent graduate, first time freshman going to two or four year public institutions in Kansas for each year separately. On the tool you will find a filter that lets you watch the percent enrollment change over the years. District colored orange or red have 50% or more students’ enrollment in remedial coursework. For contrast we’ve included that school district’s Fall Enrollment, Free and Reduced Lunch Percentage, Attendance Percentage, Graduation Rate, and Drop-Out Rate.



[1] Durmain, Emma. "Once-Bipartisan COMPETES Act Now Leaves Democrats Cold." Roll Call: 218. May 20, 2015. Accessed June 14, 2015. http://blogs.rollcall.com/218/bipartisan-competes-act-leaves-democrats-cold/.

 [2] Mervis, Jeffrey, and Adrian Cho. "Contentious Markup Expected Today as House Science Panel Takes up COMPETES Bill." Contentious Markup Expected Today as House Science Panel Takes up COMPETES Bill. April 22, 2015. Accessed June 14, 2015. http://news.sciencemag.org/funding/2015/04/contentious-markup-expected-today-house-science-panel-takes-competes-bill.

 

[3] America COMPETES ACT of 2007. HR 2272. 110th Cong., 1st Sess., Congressional Record 153, pt 125: 9414-9465. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/granule/CREC-2007-08-01/CREC-2007-08-01-pt1-PgH9414

 

[4] Kansas State Department of Education. College and Career Ready Reports: Indicator (b)(1-11), Remediation Definition. Topeka, KS, 2015. http://www.ksde.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=anepl7J4g2k%3d&tabid=974&portalid=0&mid=2811 (accessed June 14, 2015).

 

[5] U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. Residence and migration of all first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduates in degree-granting postsecondary institutions who graduate from high school in the previous 12 months, by state or jurisdiction: 2012. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, March 2014. Distributed by National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d13/tables/dt13_309.20.asp

U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. Residence and migration of all first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduates in degree-granting postsecondary institutions who graduate from high school in the previous 12 months, by state or jurisdiction: 2010. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, November 2011. Distributed by National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d12/tables/dt12_259.asp

U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. Residence and migration of all first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduates in degree-granting postsecondary institutions who graduate from high school in the previous 12 months, by state or jurisdiction: 2008. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, November 2009. Distributed by National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d10/tables/dt10_231.asp

U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. Residence and migration of all first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduates in degree-granting postsecondary institutions who graduate from high school in the previous 12 months, by state or jurisdiction: 2006. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, November 2008. Distributed by National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d08/tables/dt08_224.asp

U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. Residence and migration of all first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduates in degree-granting postsecondary institutions who graduate from high school in the previous 12 months, by state or jurisdiction: 2004. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, September 2005. Distributed by National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d06/tables/dt06_208.asp

U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. Residence and migration of all first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduates in degree-granting postsecondary institutions who graduate from high school in the previous 12 months, by state or jurisdiction: 2002. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, November 2004. Distributed by National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d04/tables/dt04_204.asp

U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. Residence and migration of all first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduates in degree-granting postsecondary institutions who graduate from high school in the previous 12 months, by state or jurisdiction: 2000. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, November 2002. Distributed by National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d02/dt204.asp

U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. Residence and migration of all first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduates in degree-granting postsecondary institutions who graduate from high school in the previous 12 months, by state or jurisdiction: 1998. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, July 2000. Distributed by National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d00/dt205.asp

U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. Residence and migration of all first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduates in degree-granting postsecondary institutions who graduate from high school in the previous 12 months, by state or jurisdiction: 1996. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, January 1998. Distributed by National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d98/d98t204.asp

 

[6] U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. Total fall enrollment in degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by state or jurisdiction: Selected years, 1970 through 2012. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, November 2013. Distributed by National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d13/tables/dt13_304.10.asp

U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. Total fall enrollment in public degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by state or jurisdiction: Selected years, 1970 through 2012. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, November 2013. Distributed by National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d13/tables/dt13_304.15.asp

U.S. Department of Education. Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics. Total fall enrollment in private degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by state or jurisdiction: Selected years, 1970 through 2012. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, November 2013. Distributed by National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d13/tables/dt13_304.20.asp

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christopher laubenthal

Christopher Laubenthal is a program officer in Education for the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, where he works to explore topics around data, education, and human capital through grants and programs.