Entrepreneurial finance is historically one of the top areas of academic publishing in entrepreneurship. The ways entrepreneurs acquire financial capital for their business varies for each one and at different stages of the business. Here you will find some of what we know about crowdfunding, debt, and equity, including angel investors, corporate venture capital, and venture capital funding.


Crowdfunding is an umbrella term covering four distinct sub-categories of group financing based on the nature of the return to investors: donation-based, rewards-based, debt-based, and equity-based. 

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About forty percent of initial startup capital in a newly founded business is debt that originates from banks. Research finds that forging strong relationships with banks improves entrepreneurs’ access to credit along multiple dimensions.

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When early-stage firms seek large investments to scale and grow, equity sales provide an avenue to acquire that necessary capital. Venture capitalists and angel investors are generally the type of investors that are active in these equity markets, seeking out companies that have extraordinary growth potential.

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