Kauffman Firm Survey Series

The Kauffman Foundation Research Series on Firm Formation and Economic Growth consists of reports that explore the relationship between firm formation and economic growth in the United States from a variety of angles.

The reports in the series include:

An Overview of the Kauffman Firm Survey: Results from 2011 Business Activities

The Kauffman Firm Survey started with a cohort of nearly 5,000 firms that began operations in 2004. This cohort is tracked annually and asked an extensive set of detailed questions that cover a range of topics such as the background of the founders, the sources and amounts of financing, firm strategies and innovations, and outcomes such as sales, profits, and survival. This report, with results through 2011, is the final iteration of the Kauffman Firm Survey.

An Overview of the Kauffman Firm Survey: Results from 2009 Activities

03/02/11 Although entrepreneurial activity is an important part of a capitalist economy, data about U.S. businesses in their early years of operation have been extremely limited. As part of an effort to

An Overview of the Kauffman Firm Survey 2004-2008

05/27/10 Results from the 2004–2008 Data showed the impact of the economic crisis.

Analyzing the 2004 2011 KFS Multiply Imputed Data

The purpose of this document is to provide instructions to the KFS users regarding the proper use of the KFS multiply imputed data to draw statistically valid inferences in their works.

Casting a Wide Net Factsheet: Online Activities of Small and New Businesses in the United States

10/20/11 The Internet's profound effect on how U.S. businesses operate is even more pronounced among young companies, according to this study, which reveals that new businesses have a higher propensity to use websites, email, and to sell online, and that these inclinations have an impact on capitalization and longevity.

Characteristics of New Firms: A Comparison by Gender

08/29/09 This report indicates that women-owned firms have relatively underperformed men-owned firms in a number of measures. The Kauffman Foundation research tracked new businesses' performance measures from 2004 to 2006 and correlated the data to gender based on primary owner characteristics, firm characteristics, industry and outcomes. It is third in a series of Kauffman Firm Survey (KFS) studies.

Patterns of Financing: A Comparison between White- and African-American Young Firms

05/12/09 This short report examines racial differences in access to financial capital. We focus on the role of capital injections—that is, injections of financial capital in the early, formative years after the business is started.

Results from Baseline and First Follow-up Surveys

03/01/08 The data from both the Baseline and First Follow-Up Surveys provide an understanding of how businesses are organized and operate in their first two years of existence (2004 and 2005), and provide some indicators of survival and growth.

Sources of Financing for New Technology Firms: A Comparison by Gender

08/10/09  Women entrepreneurs launch high-technology firms with less financial capital than men, and continue to follow a different financial strategy over time.

The Capital Structure Decisions of New Firms

04/17/09 According to this study, nearly 75 percent of most firms' startup capital is made up in equal parts of owner equity and bank loans and/or credit card debt, underscoring the importance of liquid credit markets to the formation and success of new firms.

The Kauffman Firm Survey: Who Are User Entrepreneurs? Findings on Innovation, Founder Characteristics, and Firm Characteristics

02/01/12 A study released by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation shows that "user entrepreneurs" have founded more than 46 percent of innovative startups that have lasted five years or more, even though this group creates only 10.7 percent of U.S. startups overall.